They look like something you can see in a distant galaxy.
But these incredible satellite images show the devastating impact carved by asteroids and meteorites on the Earth’s surface, resulting in the formation of many different beautiful sites.
Spectacular photos are featured in the world’s first atlas in different pits that can be seen around the world.
Incredible satellite imagery shows the devastating impact of asteroids and meteorite carvings on the Earth’s surface, such as the Shoemaker in Western Australia (pictured)
The world’s first atlas of glaciers such as the Lonar in India features eye-catching photographs (pictured)
600-page dome, more than 200 sites created by meteorites and comets colliding with the planet, in high-resolution landscape maps and satellite imagery.
It includes detailed geographical descriptions and photos of breathtaking rocky terrain.
Entitled Terrain Impact Structures, both volumes contain ‘essential details’ about each impact valley, which have now disappeared from view.
Most craters last only a few thousand years to be filled or eroded, and can only be identified by the unique changes that occur in the ground minerals from the shock wave created based on the impact.
Professor Thomas Kengman, an associate professor at the University of Freiburg in Germany, said: ‘The formation of craters by asteroid and comet impact is a fundamental process in the solar system.
The 600-page dome offers more than 200 sites, such as the Serra da Gangalha in Brazil (pictured) where planets and comets collide with the planet
Between 2010 and 2016, researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called the Tantem-X to measure every known abyss on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to a meter. Picture: Manichogan Grove in Quebec, Canada
‘As the planets grew along with their moons, these influences played a major role in increasing planetary mass, shaping the surfaces of planetary bodies, and later affecting their growth.’
‘Large meteorite impacts eventually affected the development of life on Earth.’
Between 2010 and 2016, researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called the Tantem-X to measure every known abyss on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to a meter.
These measurements enabled them to create a digital topographic model of each known abyss, including the Manicoan gorge in Canada, the Cerro do Jaraw in Brazil, the shoe maker in Western Australia and the Queni-Fada in Chad, Africa.
Professor Kenkman said: ‘Over the past 50 years lunar and space travel has provided us with detailed maps of our solar system’s old, impact-crater-covered surfaces.
Most pits, such as the Rice (pictured) in Germany, last only a few thousand years before being filled or eroded, and can only be identified by the unique changes in the earth’s minerals from the shock wave created based on the impact.
‘As far as the Earth is concerned, the global impact crater record represents only a fraction of the explosion that our planet must endure.’
The books also introduce readers to the basic principles of impact groove, radar remote sensing, and tandem-X work and fieldwork carried out by researchers.
The Atlas also features popular craters such as the Wreyford and Cicculap craters on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula that put an end to dinosaurs.
When a meteorite or asteroid struck South Africa about 2.02 billion years ago, the world’s largest and oldest crater, Wrafford, was thought to have been 185 miles across and 25 miles deep.
The books also introduce readers to the basic principles of impact groove, radar remote sensing, and tandem-X work and fieldwork carried out by researchers. Picture: Quenti-Fada Groove in Chaat
It is difficult to quantify how large these collisions really are because the craters have shrunk and in many cases disappeared.
Professor Kengman said: ‘The surface of our planet is constantly changing, and after a few thousand years the craters will disappear.
‘Some of them have formed a lake or they are buried and others are completely eroded.
‘But the shock wave creates unique changes in the minerals in the ground, so even if you don’t see the abyss, there is a shock signature.
‘What we are compiling in this atlas are confirmed attack structures, even those you have not seen.’
The measurements helped them create a digital topographic model of each known abyss, including the Manicogan Gorge in Canada and the Cerro do Jaraw (pictured) in Brazil.
The largest crater in the UK is underwater, about 25 miles off the northwest coast of Scotland, and therefore not included in the Atlas.
The first underwater hole, discovered in 2008, was carved at a speed of 40,000 miles per hour in the outer Hebrides between the islands of Lewis and Harris when three billion tons of rock was crushed in the Mitch Basin.
When asked what his favorite ditch was, Professor Kengman said: ‘Sometimes under adventurous conditions, I have a special relationship to those ditches where I did fieldwork.
Australian trenches often require helicopter access, and then you are alone for two weeks to investigate mapping and trench structures.
‘That’s so awesome.’
The Atlas also features popular craters such as the Wreyford and Siksulap craters on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, which put an end to dinosaurs. Image: Labbjarvi crater in Finland
He added: “The investigation into the morphological spectacle abyss dome in Utah in the Canyonlands National Park on the Colorado Plateau was also very good.
‘This crater is deeply eroded and provides complete 3D insights into what happens to the rock beneath a crater.
‘By the way, this crater was initially thought to be a salt dome until the shocking minerals were discovered and the appearance of its impact proven.’
Books that come in slipcase are available for purchase at the publisher’s website, Verlock Piff.