Before discussing automobile production, we must return to the global political situation. The first oil shock Since October 1973 OPEC’s Arab member states have unilaterally decided to increase the price of a barrel of crude by 70%. Lack of oil causes a kind of panic; Prices continue to rise. They quadrupled following the increase in October and December. The size of fuel prices makes urban electric car plans more credible.
Citicar makes a fuss
In the United States, the Florida-based Spring-Vanguard was inspired to develop the Citicar: 2.43m long and wedge-shaped, the minimum electric car from a club-car golf course. The power of the first model is 2.5 hp, then 3.5 hp. The top speed is 40 km / h and the limit is 64 km / h. In France, Renault offers the electric Renault 5. Developed in conjunction with EDF, it will be produced in one hundred copies. Under the hood, the electric motor generates 7.5 kW. The electric Renault 5 is capable of reaching a top speed of 60 km / h. Strict two seats (batteries in the back of the driver), which weighs 1,020 kg and has a range of 60 km.
1974, Imagination in power
That year, on the sedan, Mr. Leroy presented a prototype of an electric 2CV. It is fitted with a dynamo driven by a duct propeller at the rear of the vehicle with a recharged electric motor starting at 25 km / h. (See INA archives for example) In 1976, the United States resumed the Renault adventure. This is the Renault 12, which is being replaced by a US company (EVA), which is being tested by NASA. In the early 1980s, Nissan introduced the EV-1, the first asynchronous motor with a 2-speed electromagnetic transmission. Autonomy 160 km.
Comments are out
In 1987, the Nissan March EV-2 came in convertible form with a golf. At the moment, the electric motor is of the type compatible with permanent magnets, which we see today under current electrics … In 1990, Fiat introduced the Panda Eltra. Definitely 2 seats because 12 lead-acid batteries and charger are flat on the trunk. Its autonomy exceeds 100 km / h at a speed of 70 km / h. There was a recovery of braking energy. It will be mainly sold to administrations until 1998. Its selling price was three times higher than the Panda 750 Heat.
Aerodynamics to improve performance
In the early 90s, Nissan presented its FEV (future electric vehicle) concept with a highly researched design, not to mention the concept of General Motors’ EV1, released in 1996. Autonomy is 160 km; Nissan announces full recharge in a quarter of an hour! In 1995, a second development incorporated lithium ion batteries for the first time. In 1992, Renault presented Zoom, which was developed in conjunction with Metro. 2.65 m small urban minivan, which can reach a top speed of 120 kmph. Autonomy: 150 km.
90s, Renault already fully electric
History accelerates for electricity. Some manufacturers are starting to think about selling more of their 100% electric models. In 1995, Renault put forward the next concept, which predicted the future of the hybrid. That same year, at the Frankfurt Motor Show, the Electro Cleo, developed with Siemens, arrives. Renault has a range of 70 to 80 km… but in practice it is 50 km. With 300kg of batteries, the car can go up to 95km / h.
GM EV1, when ecology points to its nose
At the end of 1995, Citron offered the electric AX, which would only be sold to managements. It is especially in the United States that California is turning a blind eye when it comes to enacting a series of laws regarding zero-emission vehicles. To meet this plan, General Motors is developing a highly streamlined 2-seater electric car that will cost more than $ 1 billion. 1,117 EV1s were built and 800 delivered. EV1s were for rent only. Speed is limited to 125 km / h and the limit is 80 km / h. In 2001, GM canceled its power program and destroyed EV1s. Future vehicle waiting.