A meteorite disrupts the theory of the formation of Mars

Une météorite martienne remet en question le modèle de formation de Mars et peut-être plus généralement des planètes rocheuses. © Nasa, JPL, Caltech, T. Pyle

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[EN VIDÉO] The planets of the solar system were born out of catastrophe
The Earth and the other planets orbiting the Sun were born in turmoil by successive collisions. This is what this episode of the Keys to the Universe series hosted by the Discovery Science Channel describes.

The study of meteorites found on Earth makes it possible Understand the formation of our planet and its sisters Mercury, Venus and Mars. True monuments of origin The Solar SystemAsteroids help scientists define the original composition in particular Rock planets And especially nature and Origin of volatile components It enters the mixture of rocks and participated in our formation Atmosphere.

Formation of Rock Planets: Nebula or Chondrites?

Currently, the prevailing hypothesis regarding the formation of rocky planets is that these volatile elements were initially drilled in the solar nebula during the formation of young planets. At this point, the earth but others Rock planets And they were just rock balls Merging. Volatile components, etc.HydrogenThe CarbonI ‘OxygenI ‘Nitrogen And many more Gas Rare, thus absorbed, dissolves into the sea Magma Occupies their surface. Then, by Volcano These gases intensified and formed the atmosphere. The young planets were subjected to long and intense bombardment by so-called meteorites. Chondrites », Which also participated in the contribution of volatile components. The evaporating elements of the meteorite contributed the most to the formation of the atmosphere, at least the terrain.

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It is inferred from this hypothesis that the fusion of the oldest solar nebula or nebula-meteorite is mainly found at the level of the Earth’s inner layers. The deeper parts of the coat are actually more likely to have preserved this chemical signature. The superficial layers were subjected to intense melting process for billions of years Gas removal. A new study, however, disrupts this way of thinking.

Meteorite testifying to the internal structure of Mars

Meteors that fall to Earth can come from many sources, including the surface of other rocky planets in the world. The Solar System. The powerful impacts that affected the various planets early in their lives actually threw pieces of the planets into space, which constantly collided with neighboring planets. This is how fragments of Martian rocks were discovered on Earth. However, one of these meteorites has a certain value to scientists because it comes not from the surface, but from the interior of Mars, which is a very rare fact. This is about Meteor de Chassiny, discovered in France in 1815.

The team of researchers has studied the composition of this meteorite and especially the origin of its volatile components. Analysis of the isotopic ratios of krypton generally makes it possible to distinguish the solar or chondritic appearance of volatile elements. And the results of the study of the Chassigny meteorite are surprising to say the least.

In fact, isotopic analysis shows that the volatile elements in it do not come from the synthesis of the elements of the solar nebula as we think, but from the synthesis of chondritic substances. This suggests that at the time of the planet’s formation from the solar nebula, chondrites may have contributed much earlier than we thought to the contribution of volatile matter.

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The situation may have been completely reversed, with the planet’s internal structure associated with the chondrites and the solar nebula of the atmosphere.

The atmosphere of Mars would have formed very quickly

Article published in the review ScienceSuggests that Mars’ atmosphere could not have been formed by gas emissions alone. Code, Which should contain a chondritic compound. By combining the elements of the solar nebula, the planet may have had its atmosphere before the magma sea cooled. It should be noted that Mars solidified very quickly in 4 million years This period is discussedUnlike Earth, it takes 50 to 100 million years to cool.

These new results suggest that Mars could have grown by the time the solar nebula collapsed due to the impact of radiation from young people. The sun.

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