Stars dancing with black holes in the Milky Way

Le champ de gravitation d'un trou noir déforme fortement l'image du disque d'accrétion qui l'entoure et qui contient un plasma chaud et lumineux en rotation autour de l'astre. On peut s'en rendre compte avec cette image, extraite d'une simulation de ce que verrait un observateur s'approchant de l'astre compact selon une direction légèrement inclinée au-dessus du disque d'accrétion. La partie du disque située derrière le trou noir semble tordue à 90° et devient visible au-dessus du trou noir. Du fait du décalage Doppler, le disque d'accrétion est plus lumineux d'un côté que de l'autre. Jean-Pierre Luminet a fait la première simulation de ces images en 1979, bien avant celle montrée dans Interstellar qui contient, fiction oblige, quelques simplifications trompeuses. © Jean-Pierre Luminet, Jean-Alain Marck

Recently a Joint Newsletter from European Southern Observatory (ESO) And thisEvent Horizon Telescope (EHT) has announced that an online conference will be held on May 12, 2022 in France at 3:00 pm, which will report new results and specifically The largest black hole Of Milky Way. This is more than 4 million Masses Like the sun and everything else Black holes Too big, we don’t know how it came to be. We are not sureStar The compact was ejected to our hub Galaxy With this mass, it may seem like the most feasible, but actually a black hole.

On the other hand, we know many stars of this type, but they are very light in weight and are considered black holes in the Milky Way. Their origin is less mysterious because they are called star-mass black holes, usually 5 and 15 times heavier. The sun.

Let’s make some reminders about these Star black holes I take what Futura explained about them in a previous article.

When a Star More than 8 solar masses fall in gravity after discharging its nuclear fuel, although it has at least several solar masses Wind At the end of life violent star particles ejected a significant portion of its initial mass and especially its eruption Supernova At that time SN II, TheSpace time The inside of this star is dynamic and very similarThe universe Noticeable when Big Bang. The big difference is that in the first case the space is in contraction and in the second it is in expansion.

L ‘Decline The star will sometimes lead its way Thing Go under the surfaceEvent area A black hole of mass equal to the final star, that is, the star actually becomes a black hole. In the early 1960s, two groups of American and Russian researchers were active Computer The creation of this horizon was only based on completely credible laws Body Known at the time. On the contrary, these are Numerical simulations And other analytical calculations do not actually say what happened below the event horizon, at the end of gravity.

Black holes, laboratories for basic physics

That is the Nobel Prize Roger Benrose Who will finally prove in 1965 if we believe Equations Of the theory of General relativityA point like infinite density and the curve of space-time must appear in the singular of space-time, and this is inconsistent with the calculations of the two. Physicists The ancient Russians, on the contrary, Evgeny Lifshitz and Isaac Kaladnikov.

However, new physics of quantum effects and matter and forces had the potential to interfere and change the situation. However, just as the collapse of a star into a black hole is in some ways the opposite of the expansion of the observable universe during the Big Bang, the existence of a gravitational unity must have appeared at the outset. The universe Or precisely to be avoided. May be due to the rules of quantum theory Gravity What can be described John WheelerThe inventor of the word black hole, TheSpace-time foam And this is the meaning of the last work Jean Pierre Luminate.

Black holes are one of the most opaque materials in the universe. However, fortunately, they are very attractive, and we can detect them by their excessive gravitational pull. Giant black holes are the most ferocious okrace at the Cosmic Zoo, but they are not weapons of mass destruction. The jets of matter they produce will help ignite the first stars and create the first galaxies. Hubert Reeves and Jean-Pierre Luminet, contemporary cosmologists, answer all your questions. To learn more, visit the site From the Big Bang to lives. © ECP-YouTube Team

A project undertaken since the late 1960s to understand the origin of the universe and to release something new Light Its place in man and nature was clear, so it was necessary to study the physics of black holes and understand the final state of its collapse. Object-space-timeTo use the title of the famous general relativity lessonHerman Weil.

But, as a prelude to this project, a question naturally arose. Do these black holes really exist?

Possible observations from the development of radio astronomy and X-ray astronomy came in 1971, when the notion that a compact star exceeds the mass limit began to be recognized. Neutron starAnd who were inside Around the circular path Cygnus may be a black hole, orbiting a blue supergiant star in the Milky Way galaxy. Source X was discovered, also known as Cygnus X1 by the black hole and the binary system extension that contains it.

As Jean-Pierre Luminate explains in the video above, this is X-radiation emitted by a torn object from a sub-star. Wave forces And the viscous is heated by frictional forces and forms an accumulating disk as it rotates toward the black hole, which betrays its presence. An isolated galaxy black hole does not emit any radiation, even according to the detected process. Stephen Hawking Because in the current universe it is still cold Cosmic radiation.

Zoo of star black holes in the Milky Way

Other candidates for the title Star Black Holes were found in the Milky Way, which are always ejected by emissions. X-rays. NASA provides us with a series of animations showing about twenty today X-ray binary systems that provide confirmed black holes. These settings are displayed on the same scale but with Gears Asteroids in orbit have accelerated about 22,000 times. The vision of each system reflects how we see it from Earth. The result is that the temperature rises as the accretion approaches the edge of the disk Emissions of what can be seen, TheUV Finally X-ray.

Star colors ranging from blue-white to red represent 5 times hotter and 45% cooler temperatures than the surface of our Sun. In most of these systems, the flow and wave forces of matter coming from the star tear it apart, forming an accumulating disk around the black hole. In others, like the popular system known as Cygnus X-1, the star produces a kind of strong wind that is partially captured by the black hole’s gravitational pull and forms a disk there as well. Aggregation disks use different color palettes because they have a higher temperature than stars. The largest binary disk, known as GRS 1915, extends far beyond the distance that Mercury separates from our Sun. However, black holes are depicted as larger than using measured spheres to reflect their masses. © NASA’s Goddard Space Aviation Center and Scientific Visual Studio

Here are some more specific examples and distance signs taken from the previous video The Solar SystemBlack holes and asteroids often form rapidly a few million years before giants explode in a supernova, leading to binary black holes, but not always because the extra star body could be a neutron. Star and explosion can separate the two celestial bodies.

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