Of course, Hawking’s best mind struggle with the limits of a body destroyed by an incurable disease says much about collective imagination. But what exactly did this scientist do? Since we can not find great discoveries in Hawking’s achievements, it is not possible to point it out in an easy way – the times that revolutionized a person’s thought science are gone forever. The achievements of the brilliant Englishmen were primarily the result of their ability to combine different but equally important areas of theoretical physics such as gravity, cosmology, quantum theory, thermodynamics and entropy. So let us briefly list Hawking’s most important achievements.
1970 – Theory of the beginning of the universe
One of the elements of Einstein’s theory of relativity is the existence of oneness – a point at the beginning and center of the black hole: the area of gravity where even light cannot escape. However, scientists do not believe in unity, and only Roger Benrose proved the origin of black holes.
Benrose collaborated with Hawking, in which the two published an article showing that Einstein’s theory of relativity began to show that the universe existed in a singular form. Thus, they contributed to the spread of the Big Bang theory, which today is considered the most viable model of the evolution of the universe.
1971-72 – Functional principles of black holes
Black holes have their own kinetic principles, which are their own version of the laws of thermodynamics. Hawking was the second of them to establish that under the assumptions of classical physics (as opposed to quantum physics) the total area of such an object would never decrease. Hawking’s theory was a point of contention in the scientific community, contrary to the general theory that black holes do not emit heat, assuming they are hot. Hawking also provided a separate mathematical proof that any concept can be fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.
1974-75 – Hawking radiation or how black holes disappear
The prevailing opinion to this day is that nothing can escape the gravity of the black hole. However, since the mid-1970s, Hawking’s quantum theory has shown that black holes actually emit heat and eventually disappear.
The process is slow – the mass of the black hole slowly increases. Like the mass of the sun, it takes longer to “evaporate” than the current age of the universe. On the other hand, small black holes disappear fast, releasing more energy in the last second of their life, which can lead to an amazing explosion.
Hawking radiation has not yet been confirmed by observation, and it is very difficult to see because the temperature emitted by black holes is slightly higher than the temperature of absolute zero.
1982 – How did galaxies form?
The young universe was going through a period of rapid expansion after the Big Bang. In 1982, Hawking was one of the first to show how quantum fluctuations (small variations in the distribution of matter) could contribute to the formation of galaxies. It started out a little differently, ended up with the gravitational pull to attract the scattered object, forming the cosmic structure we now know. Modern observations confirm the fluctuations that Hawking spoke of.
Hawking has several books, but his greatest success was undoubtedly “A Brief History of Time”, published in the United States in 1988. Its purpose was to give the average man modern achievements in physics, astronomy and cosmology. In the pages of the book, Hawking struggled with questions about the nature of time, the universe or the limits of our cognition and the existence of God.
The book has been a resounding success to date, with over 9 million copies in circulation and for 237 weeks it has topped the British Sunday Times bestseller list. Is significant “A Brief History of Time” has also been published in our mother tongue.
1993 “Black holes and baby universes and other articles”
Another best-selling collection of Stephen Hawking’s popular science articles and public appearances from 1976-1992 is a must-read book for science enthusiasts. In addition to the problems in the fields of cosmology and scientific philosophy, readers were able to learn about childhood, study time and the struggle with incurable disease.
2004 – A new theory of black holes
In 2004, Hawking proposed another theory about black holes. This was the final stage of the long-standing establishment between Hawking and John Preskill. In the end, Hawking acknowledged Breskill’s success and acknowledged that information crossing the event horizon could return to the ordinary universe. But on one condition, it is distorted beyond our comprehension. Hawkings presented his position in a related publication, but his arguments were not fully trusted by the scientific community.
2006 – A universe without a beginning
The “top-down cosmology” theory proposed with Thomas Hertrock states that the universe has no starting point. This is the current state of the world that chooses the version of the past from the many possible. Although not very intuitive, the theory allows to solve advanced problems with physical constants and essentially deals with the concept of a “beginning” of the universe without the need for the theory of multiverses (e.g. parallel universes).
2015 – Breakthrough efforts
In 2015, Stephen Hawking helped launch the Breakthrough Initiatives project, which aims to explore extraterrestrial life forms and send information about our creatures into space. Hawking was a great supporter of space exploration, and during the official launch of this initiative, he said, “The question of whether there must be other life forms in the infinite universe is always the most important question we have. Ask. It’s time for us to know about them. The answer.” .
Selected Articles by Stephen Hawking:
Hawking, SW; Benrose, r. (1970). “Gravitational Decline and the Unity of Cosmology – Benrose and Hawking’s Essay on their Theory of Integrity
Hawking, s. (1971). “Gravitational radiation from black hole collision” – text on the collision of two black holes
Hartil, J .; Hawking, s. (1983). “The wave activity of the universe” – an article describing the wave activity of the universe without the boundaries of space-time
Hawking, s. (2005). “Information loss in black holes”. – Hawking’s work, in which he presents information about reaching black holes and theories about the possibility of their escape from such matter.
See also information on underwater exploration in space:
Source: Own study, Defender Ft. Jim Campbell / Aero-News Network, Duck Wheeler Creative Commons CC BY 2.0, Olga Popova / 123RF.com