In the United States, universities have introduced proactive measures in favor of African-Americans since the 1960s, but they are implicit, and some states have returned to these programs, explains Daniel Sabak, director of research at the Center for International (SERI) research. Expert in Science Po and course.
When did the United States begin collecting ethnic statistics?
In the broadest sense, since 1790, as part of the census. First, accountants were responsible for recording “race” in their records, based on their own findings – without consulting those involved. In 1970, this collection system was replaced by self-declaration. A change unrelated to the civil rights movement, driven only by the budget concept: sending these questionnaires by post is cheaper than sending accountants to the field formally.
Under what circumstances have American universities introduced concrete action?
In the face of the civil rights movement, and in response to the wave of “ethnic riots” in many American cities from 1964 to 1968, some universities have developed concrete action plans. An example is Princeton [New Jersey]In 1968, the number of African-American first-year students tripled after the riots in neighboring Newark. These universities have been decentralized, decentralized, and initiatives have sometimes taken the form of quotas.
In 1978, the Supreme Court’s Pakke ruling established the unconstitutional nature of this racial segregation, with rare exceptions. On the other hand, it approved the plansFirm Action Flexible and informal in nature and intended to promote the “diversity” of the student body, which includes racial diversity.
In 2003, a new Supreme Court ruling made it clear that voluntarily awarding extra points to black or Hispanic candidates in addition to the quota was unconstitutional. However, the court upheld the policy of informal confirmation aimed at reaching the “critical mass” of black and Hispanic students.
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