The key turning point. The universe may be finite

The key turning point.  The universe may be finite

“Actually, we can say: we now know the size of the universe,” says Thomas Butcher, an astronomer at the Center for Astronomical Research at Claude Bernard University in Lyon.

The “donut-shaped universe” hypothesis (more precisely in the form of a Taurus) has not yet been clearly demonstrated, but the interesting engineering website writes that it provides new and significant clues about the behavior, structure and final destiny of the universe.

Torres The surface of rotation is formed by rotating a circle on an axis, which is located in the same plane and has no common points with it. This shape, for example, has a tire tread or inflated ring.

A universe much smaller than we thought?

If we live in a universe in the form of a donut or swimming circle, the first two things we know about it are: The universe is finite and much smaller than we thought – three to four times larger than we currently know. It also means that instead of expanding forever, the universe will eventually collapse within itself.

Numerous questions arise, but according to scientists, there is ample evidence to support the “Great Taurus” hypothesis.

“The answer to our article is that the finite universe fits the results of our observation more than the infinite model,” Butcher said.

But what does this invention mean, and how did they discover it? Can the theory be taken seriously? How fundamental would it be in our understanding of the universe if it were indeed infinite but not finite?

This does not deny the flat nature of the universe

“Current cosmological models work with three basic geometric models of the universe: closed, flat, and open. Although all three models have the same shape as the so-called ‘hot’ start. Big Bang, Is fundamentally different from subsequent development – the expansion of the closed universe gradually stops and the universe slides within itself. On the other hand, a flat and open universe is characterized by accelerating expansion, ”said Michael Jazek, a researcher at the Faculty of Science at the University of Maserik in Brno.

He pointed out that the new study mentioned above does not deny the flat nature of the universe from a geometric point of view – it focuses on topography.

“Conversely, if parallel lines are drawn on flat paper and the ends of the paper are connected in the shape of a cylinder, the lines will be parallel, so the cylinder is geometrically flat. Also, we can connect the ends of the cylinder to create a closed torus, which is still geometrically flat, but the universe is closed. If it was a spatial 3D torus, a rocket moving in a straight line would theoretically return to the launch site, “said Sajasek.

Missing fluctuations indicate a closed space

The authors of the study came to a similar conclusion based on the analysis of temperature fluctuations in what is called the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMP), i.e., radiation from the early stages of space, about 380,000 years after the Big Bang, protons and electrons reunited into the universe optically.

In these early stages, according to Jajik, the universe was small, and one or more dimensions would reveal more than any contact with each other (like the paper torus).

Experts in France have found that there are no fluctuations in the microwave background data that are sufficiently similar, i.e. if the universe is not spatially interconnected.

“At infinite space, CMB radiation temperature defects are present in all measurements. However, if space is limited, wavelengths larger than the size of space are not found,” Butcher told LiveScience.

A geographically closed universe, characterized by maximum fluctuations, is what the authors observe in the data of the WMAP (NASA) and PLANCK (ESA) satellites, as Chavasek reminded Novingi in his response.

Researchers have made several simulations to find out which topographical model of the universe fits into the observation of the cosmic microwave background – and found that it is a 3D torus, in which three spatial dimensions are interconnected.

“Therefore the dimensions of the universe can be determined theoretically, according to these results it should be three to four times larger than the observed universe,” Jazek concluded.

But the spacecraft will never return to the launch site

However, even in this closed universe, according to Butcher’s crew, the rocket will not return to the launch pad because the expansion of the universe is fast enough for light, so the rocket flying at maximum speed cannot return to the base at the last moment.

“Although the study and its results are innovative, they should be taken with caution because the absence of certain fluctuations may be the result of instruments that observe the background of the microwave. More accurate observations in this area of ​​the spectrum are needed to confirm the results,” concluded the Brno School astronomer.

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